(Reuters) – Britain’s fourth-biggest grocer Wm Morrison saw its sales decline worsen over the last three months as it continued to lose market share to hard discounters Aldi and Lidl, industry data showed on Tuesday.

Your social media content where this is in the public domain, and any messages you send direct to us via social media. This information can include posts and comments, pictures and video footage. You should review the terms and conditions and privacy policies of the social media that you use to ensure you understand what information relating to you may be placed in the public domain and how you can stop or limit it from happening.

Morrisons. (2014). Annual report 2014. Available: Last accessed 12th Sep 2014.

Annual Report and Financial Statements 2013/14

View the Annual report and financial statements (microsite)
Please note, Internet Explorer versions 6, 7 and 8 are not currently supported, please use an alternative browser or download the PDF below.

Download the Annual report and financial statements (PDF)

Download the Strategic Report 2013-14 (PDF)

Applying Barney’s (1991) VRIN framework can determine if a resource is a source of sustainable competitive advantage. To serve as a basis for sustainable competitive advantage, resources must be —

  • valuable — meaning that they must be a source of greater value, in terms of relative costs and benefits, than similar resources in competing firms
  • rare — rareness implies that the resource must be rare in the sense that it is scarce relative to demand for its use or what it produces
  • inimitable — it is difficult to imitate
  • nonsubstitutable — other different types of resources cannot be functional substitutes

The criteria of the VRIN Framework clearly rules out best practices as a source of competitive advantage. If other firms can easily understand and copy a capability, it is not a source of advantage.

Using the TOWS Matrix

Developing Strategic Options From an External-Internal Analysis


Sometimes it helps to look at a problem from a different perspective.

© iStockphoto/skilpad

TOWS Analysis is a variant of the classic business tool, SWOT Analysis.

TOWS and SWOT are acronyms for different arrangements of the words Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats.

By analyzing the external environment (threats and opportunities), and your internal environment (weaknesses and strengths), you can use these techniques to think about the strategy of your whole organization, a department or a team. You can also use them to think about a process, a marketing campaign, or even your own skills and experience.

Our article on SWOT Analysis   helps you perform a thorough SWOT/TOWS Analysis. At a practical level, the only difference between TOWS and SWOT is that TOWS emphasizes the external environment whilst SWOT emphasizes the internal environment. In both cases, this analysis results in a SWOT (or TOWS) Matrix like the one shown below:

Strengths Weaknesses
Opportunities Threats

In this article, we look at how you can extend your use of SWOT and TOWS to think in detail about the strategic options open to you. While this approach can be used just as well with SWOT as TOWS, it’s most often associated with TOWS.

Identifying Strategic Options

SWOT or TOWS analysis helps you get a better understanding of the strategic choices that you face. (Remember that “strategy” is the art of determining how you’ll “win” in business and life.) It helps you ask, and answer, the following questions: How do you:

  • Make the most of your strengths?
  • Circumvent your weaknesses?
  • Capitalize on your opportunities?
  • Manage your threats?

A next step of analysis, usually associated with the externally-focused TOWS Matrix, helps you think about the options that you could pursue. To do this you match external opportunities and threats with your internal strengths and weaknesses, as illustrated in the matrix below:

TOWS Strategic Alternatives Matrix

External Opportunities

External Threats

Internal Strengths

“Maxi-Maxi” StrategyStrategies that use strengths to maximize opportunities.
“Maxi-Mini” StrategyStrategies that use strengths to minimize threats.
Internal Weaknesses (W)
“Mini-Maxi” StrategyStrategies that minimize weaknesses by taking advantage of opportunities.
“Mini-Mini” StrategyStrategies that minimize weaknesses and avoid threats.

TOWS Matrix © 1982 Heinz Weihrich, Ph.D.

This helps you identify strategic alternatives that address the following additional questions:

  • Strengths and Opportunities (SO) – How can you use your strengths to take advantage of the opportunities?
  • Strengths and Threats (ST) – How can you take advantage of your strengths to avoid real and potential threats?
  • Weaknesses and Opportunities (WO) – How can you use your opportunities to overcome the weaknesses you are experiencing?
  • Weaknesses and Threats (WT) – How can you minimize your weaknesses and avoid threats?

Using the Tool

Step 1: Print off our free SWOT Worksheet and perform a TOWS/SWOT analysis, recording your findings in the space provided. This helps you understand what your strengths and weaknesses are, as well as identifying the opportunities and threats that you should be looking at.

Step 2: Print off our free TOWS Strategic Options Worksheet, and copy the key conclusions from the SWOT Worksheet into the area provided (shaded in blue).

Step 3: For each combination of internal and external environmental factors, consider how you can use them to create good strategic options:

  • Strengths and Opportunities (SO) – How can you use your strengths to take advantage of these opportunities?
  • Strengths and Threats (ST) – How can you take advantage of your strengths to avoid real and potential threats?
  • Weaknesses and Opportunities (WO) – How can you use your opportunities to overcome the weaknesses you are experiencing?
  • Weaknesses and Threats (WT) – How can you minimize your weaknesses and avoid threats?


The WT quadrant – weaknesses and threats – is concerned with defensive strategies. Put these into place to protect yourself from loss, however don’t rely on them to create success.

The options you identify are your strategic alternatives, and these can be listed in the appropriate quadrant of the TOWS worksheet.


When you have many factors to consider, it may be helpful to construct a matrix to match individual strengths and weaknesses to the individual opportunities and threats you’ve identified. To do this, you can construct a matrix such as the one below for each quadrant (SO, ST, WO, and WT).

UK online grocery sales forecast to double amid shakeup of retail market

Online, convenience and food discounters are the sectors to watch, says IGD, as it predicts a sharp rise in the value of the UK grocery market in the next five years

Grocers rush to open ‘dark stores’ as online food shopping expands

Supermarket chains including Tesco, Asda and Waitrose to sign up for twice as much warehouse space to meet internet sales

Online shopping for food set to increase by 126% as families tire of trudging the aisles at the supermarket

  • Industry study predicts sales increase of £14.6billion in next five years
  • Takings in convenience branches of stores to go up to £46billion

Morrisons price war wipes £3bn off food retailers

Supermarket group to take on Aldi and Lidl after 2.8pc fall in sales and write-down of assets

The labour market

Estimates by the ONS in 2014 put the size of the Uklabour force at 32.7m workers out of an estimated population of 63.7m.  The labour market includes the supply of labour by households and the demand for labour by firms. Wages represent the price of labour, which provide an income to households and represent a cost to firms. In a hypothetical free market economy, wages are determined by the unregulated interaction of demand and supply. However, in real mixed economies, governments and trade unions can exert an influence on wage levels.

Nominal and real nominal wages

Nominal wages are the money wages paid to labour in a given period of time. Real wages are nominal wages, adjusted to take into account changes in the price level. Most workers expect at least an annual increase in their money wages to reflect price increases, and so maintain their real wages.

The demand for labour

The main factors affecting the demand for labour are:

The wage rate

The higher the wage rate, the lower the demand for labour. Hence, the demand for labour curve slopes downwards. As in all markets, a downward sloping demand curve can be explained by reference to the income and substitution effects.

At higher wages, firms look to substitute capital for labour, or cheaper labour for the relatively expensive labour. In addition, if firms carry on using the same quantity of labour, their labour costs will rise and their income (profits) will fall. For both reasons, demand for labour will fall as wages rise.

Morrisons enters the online market – but is it too late?



UK mobile devices usage and demographic roundup

2 Introduction


Smartphone and tablet usage is on the rise and brands and enterprises need to make sure they are up-to-date with the changes in consumer behaviour that the devices bring.

As ownership explodes, research data has often lagged behind. Thankfully this position is now being rectified as research organisations and even government departments help to shape our understanding of who is using intelligent mobile devices and how they are using them.

This data provides a critical insight for any marketing departments, entrepreneurs and creative agencies that need to invest in mobile.

We Are Apps have collated the most recent data and research in a single digest. It is intended to give you a quick, top-line view of the information you need to make informed decisions when planning an app, mobile campaign or any digital communications that could be accessed by mobile devices.

For more in-depth statistics, we encourage you to consult the various organisations that have supplied the original data. Each is attributed at the end of this document, along with a link to the original report.

The sections included are:

Who uses smartphones, which aims to explain who in the UK is using smartphones and tablets, how old they are and what devices they use.

How they are using them, which aims to explain what people do with their smartphones and tablets and especially how addicted UK smartphone users are to their devices.

Where are they using them, which aims to show that people are using their phones wherever they go, and takes a closer look at the use of Wi-Fi and data roaming. We also take a look at how smartphones are making life easier by exploring the statistics for mobile usage during shopping.

Finally, as many decision makers are considering whether to create an application or whether it’s better to optimise their website for mobile, we have also included a comparison of mobile websites to mobile apps.

Ian Malone Managing Director, We Are Apps, London, January 2013



Internet Access – Households and

Individuals, 2013

Coverage: GB

Date: 08 August 2013

Geographical Area: Country

Theme: People and Places

Key points

  • In 2013, 36 million adults (73%) in Great Britain accessed the Internet every day, 20 million more

than in 2006, when directly comparable records began.

  • Access to the Internet using a mobile phone more than doubled between 2010 and 2013, from

24% to 53%.

  • In 2013, 72% of all adults bought goods or services online, up from 53% in 2008.
  • In Great Britain, 21 million households (83%) had Internet access in 2013.
  • Broadband Internet connections using fibre optic or cable were used by 42% of households, up

from 30% in 2012.

You may already use social media for making contact with others, keeping them informed, meeting, planning and doing things together. However, social media are also an important tool for political literacy.

Social media is new weapon in war on British jihadis

Twitter and Facebook costing economy £14bn a year

Social networking websites like Facebook and Twitter are costing the British economy up to £14 billion a year in lost working time, a new survey has suggested.


Facebook ‘adds £2bn to UK economy’

Study concludes that social network supports 35,200 UK jobs and adds £2.2bn to British economy each year

Online networking ‘harms health’

A teenager using a computer

There are concerns that social networking keeps people apart

People’s health could be harmed by social networking sites because they reduce levels of face-to-face contact, an expert claims.


Toxic childhood’ of cyberbullying, social media and hypersexualised culture leads one in five teenagers to self-harm

Read more:
Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

World Health Organisation says 20% of 15-year-olds self-harmed in last year

New report questioned 6,000 children aged 11, 13 and 15 in England

Similar study carried out in 2002 revealed 6.9% had self-harmed

Experts put trend down to growing online pressures and sexualisation

More girls report feeling unhappy than boys, the report reveals

The ‘Spiral of Silence’: How social media encourages self-censorship online

A new report from the US suggests that Facebook and Twitter make us less likely to express opinions if we think others will disagree with us

Social media data and real time analytics

Traditional data storage systems were not designed for real-time analysis but new technologies can now provide live information and data analysis can accomplished in real-time. Social media data offers the possibility of studying social processes as they unfold at the level of populations as an alternative to traditional surveys or interviews. The data from social media is described as “qualitative data on a quantitative scale” and requires innovative analysis techniques.

New technology uses social media to keep track of water levels

A new tool monitors river levels and publishes the data via social media, helping prepare both citizens and businesses for the impacts of climate change

Social media use

What we share and how we moderate comments on our social media channels, including Twitter, YouTube and Facebook.

Our social media guidance document explains how we manage our social media accounts and the service that you can expect to receive from us via these channels.

The felfie: how farmers are embracing social media

Farmers are posting their ‘felfies’ online, but it’s not just for fun – social media is a lifeline for people in a lonely profession

Current laws sufficient to cover social media offences

Legislation currently in existence, including the Communications Act 2003 and the Protection from Harassment Act 1997, along with the guidelines for applying them published by the Director of Public Prosecutions, are enough to ensure that criminal offences committed using social media can be adequately prosecuted, says the House of Lords Communications Committee in its new report, published today.

Twitter users: A guide to the law

People who tweeted photos allegedly of child killer Jon Venables are being charged with contempt of court. It’s the latest in a long line of cases that suggest that ordinary social media users need to have a grasp of media law.


iPhone iPad

Customer Reviews



I’ve been a fanatical Ocado customer for the past 5 years due to their brilliant app and great service, and this brings exactly that but with Morrison’s products – so fantastic fresh produce at a fraction of the cost of Waitrose. Ocado have just replicated everything that’s brilliant about their app for Waitrose and given it to Morrisons – inspired!

Fantastic app

by SamsMum5

Morrisons have just leapfrogged the competition with their online shopping app. Technology is from Ocado, so you get the same level of quality, but groceries at 3/4 of the price.

Fantastic accessibility

by Smugg22

This app has great VoiceOver accessibility. As a blind user, it has been a pleasure to use. Thank you

Customers Also Bought










The Leader I Have Become-A Reflective Report

A true leader is one who takes decisions on his own but not for his own benefit but for his team as well.

The act of leading the team with honesty and the right way is known as leadership.  A leader leading a group has to be very humble, honest, accountable and must take up responsibilities. Having a vision is what makes a good leader. Leading a team with a vision to change is very important as this not only benefits him but also the organization as a whole in achieving its targets.

The kind of leader I would be is a democratic one. In democratic type of leadership, the team member are bought into the decision making process as well. Their ideas and thoughts are welcome which helps the leader in having a better view of things. It is possible at times that a leader might get stck at certain difficult points. I have always been a democratic leader and one example to show here would be that I am a football player and have captained my school team. What I learned during my captaincy was that involving and working as a team helps in introducing new ideas and brings new innovation to the team. At this stage not only does the team try to find a way but makes sure they find a way by planning and discussing it together. They actually feel valued and involved and they are bound to care about the end result as well.

The leader who has inspired me a lot would be none other than the great business legend Ratan Tata. His climb to the top has been fascinating. It is his sincerity and devotion to the work that has bought him to the level he is today .As a kid he had to go through the hard time of his parents’ separation which lead to his grandparents taking care of him. He made sure his education levels were high by attending the prestigious Harvard Business School. While he succeeded his uncle and took over as chairman of Tata group he did have a hard time during his first 3 to 4 years. Ever since then it has been seen that he bought the company upto a very reputed level. It is seen that he has adopted the democratic style of leadership. He is known to discuss his ideas and plans with his employees till date.  He encourages their plans and ideas leading in their development as well.

Tata has become a powerhouse in today’s world. Some famous points are

  1. Takeover of Jaguar and Land Rover from Ford motors
  2. They were the first company to cross 1 billion dollars in revenue back in 2002
  3. Famous Singaporean steel company NatSteel was taken over in 2005
  4. They introduced the car NANO. A very affordable car for the people with moderate income.
  5. The company made a breakthrough in 2011 to the top 50 global brands.


My colleagues have always commented on my positive ways of interaction with my team members. They have always encouraged me through their negative and positive feedbacks. Being a democratic leader I have always welcomed their suggestions and feedbacks. The negative part they have pointed out was that of my time to take decisions at times. I have always had difficulty in reaching a conclusion in a very fast manner. With their help as well as help from my tutor and the classes I have attended with practical team games played during the classes I believe I have been able to overcome this.


The power to take important decisions and think in a wider sense will be the skills I’m trying to develop during the course. As I have mentioned before the problem of getting to a conclusion at a very fast rate has been solved. I’m sure by the time I finish my course I will be able to become a very good and decisive leader.


1. West, S. (2014). Ten Characteristics of a True Leader. [online] The Leadership Resource. Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014].

2., (2013). Former Tata Steel MD J.J. Irani on Ratan Tata’s leadership style – Business Today. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014].

3., (2014). Ratan Tata- A Born Leader. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014].

Ethical Leadership

Ethics in simple words is doing the right thing through the right methods. It is the base for building a good society. Ethical leadership is knowing and sticking to your values and using them for common good. It is about doing the right thing not only for one’s personal benefits but also for the benefits of the team. A good and ethical leadership is when the leader leads ethically in their attitude and through good interactions.

“Acting as an ethical leader in today’s society shows true courage and strength. Everyday we are faced with ethical decisions whether it is big or small. How a leader chooses to handle ethical conflicts in the workplace sets the example for everyone. As a leader, it is critical that you deal with any unethical behavior strictly while levying the appropriate consequences. It is also important that any unethical behavior be dealt with immediately without excuses given(Lacey,January 10 2011)”.

Characterstics of an Ethical Leader –

Ethical leaders are the ones who do the right thing at the right time and for the correct reasons. And how its done are by the following ways-

  1. The need to define the organization’s values- It is very important to set a good example for others in his or her organization as they follow the leader. It’s very necessary for the leaders to know their company’s values, rules and the ways of conduct as it is their responsibility to enforce it or make sure their subordinates follow it as well.

An example to mention would be that of the organization 3M, the global leaders in technology. What has been seen in the organization is that they are well known for following their values. Everyone from top to bottom positions are known to breathe the values.


  1. Set the Tone- Once the company’s core values are well known throughout the organization, the right working environment should be set. The leader must demonstrate it through practice. Consequences for those who do not follow these and rewards for the ones who have acted upon the rules and regulations well must be given.


  1. Must recognize ethical dilemas- in order to recognize ethical dilemas one must prepare himself in advance.  He or she must imagine themselves in a situation which could happen not that imagining every situation is possible but such preperations are bound to help you get ready for your decision making as you will be well stuck with your values. It is important to rethink the decisions before triggering it. One must take a decision and go through its consequences.


  1. When doubt arises- everyone is not perfect and it is not possible for one to be a 100percent on everything. He or she will reach a state where they might feel that their decision might not be the right one. He or she must calm down and think logically at times likes these.


Model of Ethical Leadership-

The most important model for ethical leadership would be the 4-V Framework. It brings a connection between the internal and external. The internals including ones beliefs and values whereas the external being behaviors and actions. The connection for the purpose of common good. The 4-V’s are as follows-


  1. Values- Ethical Leadership is very good knowledge about our core values and staying committed to them. It is important to know the values at the very beginning of our identities. By doing this we start placing our values with each and every decision that we take in our lives.
  2. Vision- our actions are to be well framed and the ability to frame these are known as having a vision.


  1. Voice- by giving out your vision and enforcing it on others through communication is a good way of motivating your subordinates and making sure they are on the right track as well.


  1. Virtue- Virtue is the bringing together of all the mentioned V’S. it’s achieved upon by good practice and implementation.



Company’s practicing ethical way’s. is well known for their ethical practices. They donate millions of dollars for the purpose of education and charity. They motivate this in their employees by giving them 6 days off a year, so that they can spend some time in doing any kind of charity work they are interested in.


Company known for negative practicing-

Mattel known for their toys were caught up in controversial ways as they soon were known to produce hazardous toys.  In order to cut costs the company soon gave their manufacturing part to China but the final returned product was a massacre.  The toxic lead paint was well over the limit  and the other parts were seen as trouble if swallowed by kids.

Unethical ways will give you success but it’s been proven that this type of success never stays for long. Ethical success has to be always adopted in order to keep the customers satisfied as well as to stay on good standards.


 1. Lacey’s Mission, (2011). Characteristics of an Ethical Leader. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014].

 2., (2014). Ethical Leadership: Doing the Right Thing. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014].

3.  Policies, G. (2013). Good Business: 10 Companies With Ethical Corporate Policies. [online] Minyanville. Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014].

4., (2014). Ethical Leadership — Center for Ethical Leadership. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014].

5.  Bright Hub, (2014). Typical Examples of Bad Business Ethics: Companies You Know. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014].


Change For a Better Future

“Change management: the process, tools and techniques to manage the people-side of change to achieve a required business outcome(Creasey)”.In terms of an organization change can be of various ways basically major and minor changes. Major changes can be noted as mergers, new working practices, redundancies and so on while minor changes can be new training courses, new canteen etc.

Changes are done if bumps are seen in the organization and they are in need for improvement. Change can help in bringing betterment to the organization. While change helps in improvement when managed well, if not can lead to the downfall of the organization. At times there can be internal struggle as some people are not ready for new starts and can resist it.


Hence change management in simple words is nothing but the management responsible of the change or management of the change.

There are 3 important frameworks that helps in managing the change in an organization. They are as follows-
  1. Lewin’s Change Management Model
  2. McKinsey 7-S  Model and
  3. Kotter’s Eight Step Model Change


Starting with Lewin’s Change Management Model.


This model shows that a change in an organization goes through one static state to another state.  The three steps involved in this model are as follows-


  1. Unfreeze. Some people tend to resist change and by this a sense of identity is attached to their environment. By doing this even if the change or alternatives are beneficial ones, they are bound to cause discomfort. So through this stage one of the main aim is to move people from this frozen state to an unfrozen state. High motivation to the employees will be needed in order to break their resistance.  They have to be informed about why the organization needs a change. When the employees are known to understand the cause of the change they are sure to adjust accordingly.


  1. Transition-  in this stage the people know that old methods that they are used to are changing but have no knowledge about the new methods that are taking over. Change brings on new roles for everyone and this might create a decrease in efficiency. With good leadership and training this problem can be solved.


  1. Refreeze- The main aim of this last stage, Refreeze, is reestablishing stability and making sure people have reconnected into familiar and very safe environment. This stage is when the productivity has reached back to a stable and good level from its very low productive stage.


McKinsey 7-S Model.

The 7S model helps in improving the performance level of the organization, helps during a change, lets the company know about effect due to future change.

The 7 factors are interdependent and are categorized under two types of elements. Strategy, Structure and System are seen to be under Hard elements while shared values skills and styles come under Soft Elements.

  1. Strategy- helps in building and maintain a competitive advantage over the competitors.
  2. Structure- structure shows who is to report to whom in an organization.
  3. Systems- the methods or ways the staff go through to achieve daily objectives.
  4. Shared values- these are the corporate culture  and work ethics that are followed by the company.
  5. Style- style shows the method of leading the organization that the leader has adopted.
  6. Staff- the skills and efficiency of the employees.
  7. Skills- the general skills of the employees who work in the very organization.


Here we have seen how interdependent each an every element is to one another. If one goes out of place it will affect the whole system.



Kotters Eight Step-


Kotters framework helps when an organization is in need for change. 8 steps in the process are as follow-


Step1- Creating a sense of urgency is very important. By identifying potential threats and opportunities and discussing them with the employees will get them talking and thinking.


Step 2- This involves Forming a good Coalition. Here bringing together a team along with a good leader who can control and deal with the needed changes are done.


Step 3- A vision for change is necessary.  If a vision is created then the employees will focus on achieving the vision and will be ready for any kind of methods to complete it.


Step 4- Frequent communication of the vision and the challenges will keep the employees on track.


Step 5- this step includes removing all the obstacles by identifying the problem, choosing the right leaders for the change taking quick actions and bringing in new ideas.


Step 6- making quick progress is important. Quick victories small or big will motivate the employees and help in adaptation.


Step 7- Building on the change by looking into the quick victories and finding out what went right and wrong, analyzing and continuing to set goals.

Step 8-Continuos efforts will help in ensuring that the change has a strong place in the organization’s core culture and values. This can be done by recognizing the important workers publicly, including the new ideas during new recruitment and so on.

Change is always needed for an organization. It is seen how a leader or a company can overcome the resistance from the details mentioned above.  Change brings upon better innovations and better innovations brings success.


1.  Anon, (2014). [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014].

2., (2014). change management principles, process, tips and change theory and models. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014].

3., (2014). Definition Change Management. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014].

4., (2014). Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model: Implementing Change Powerfully and Successfully. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014].

5., (2014). The McKinsey 7S Framework: Ensuring That All Parts of Your Organization Work in Harmony. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014].

6., (2014). Lewin’s Change Management Model: Understanding the Three Stages of Change. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014].

Effective Leadership Style To Managing The Subordinates

dreamstime_m_14281983 follow the leader

A leader in simple terms is someone who leads a team or group by commanding. Leadership is a method of leading a group or a team by influencing them socially which helps them in being completely potential in achieving targets by maximizing their skills. Leadership is not based on authority, power or tasks put on forcefully on people.

Leadership is based on a lot of various things. It is very good vision that makes a person a very good leader. A very good leadership is a way of having a good vision that leads to useful and productive change be it among a team or in an organization. It also depends on the behavior rather than just attributes. He or she must be able to inspire trust and loyalty.

Difference between Leadership and management –

  1. A manager maintains what has been carried on by the organization. A leader brings innovation for ways of achieving objectives.
  2. A manager mainly controls and relies mainly on it. A leader mainly inspires trust among his members.
  3. A manager does the things that has to be done right but a leader concentrates on doing the right thing in his own style

There are various styles of leadership. One of the widely used type of leadership these days is the democratic style of leadership. In this style it involves increasing morale and creation of buy-ins through a lot of interactions. In this type others are also made part in decision making. Here they also given the power to make decisions rather than the leaders taking the decision all by themselves. An example to highlight this would be a case study from the book Primal Leadership, Learning to lead with emotional Intelligence .the case study focused on how a private catholic school had to shut down due to its very low income. Even though the school had to shut down eventually, the case study shows how the problem was dealt with. Sister Mary who was in charge of the school, instead of sending out and letting the faculty know about the closing days, she discussed the situation with her faculty and took their views and solution methods into consideration. She also made sure she had taken the views of the parents as well. Even though the school still shut down, what we see here is that everybody was part of the process. Not only did this increase their morale by creative thinking but this also lead to everyone working together to find an appropriate solution.

The next style to point out would be the transactional style. In this type the managers are seen to be receiving certain goals and targets and can praise their subordinates or can even punish them if not met efficiently. In this type, both the leader and the members of the team set goals together and the members come in terms with the leader agreeing to follow his or her directions and rules to complete the task. Here, the leader reviews the work done by the members and can even correct them, give bonuses or punish them according to their accomplishment of their tasks.

Autocratic would be the other style to be brought into view.  In terms of autocratic the leader alone takes decisions and the members are required to work according to his views. This type of leadership is usually opposed by employees who thrive well placing ideas in groups.

Transformational style depends on high communication. Here the leaders communicate with the members at all times to enhance and increase their efficiency. The leaders deal with the big targets in an organization and the smaller tasks are given to the subordinates.

The best style according to me:-

The best style for me would be democratic style of leadership. Here the leader is seen involving the members in decision making as well. In this type of leadership it helps not only the leader solve issues but also the team members improve themselves as they are also included in the big decision making processes.  This helps the members come up with their own ideas and suggestions to solve certain problems and increase their skill. They will storm their brains and think well in order to reach a very good conclusion.  Increase in their skill will help them become good leaders in the future as well. He or she will be able to lead a team with good confidence and take decisions as they have dealt with such problems in the past.


1., (2014). Kotter International – Change Leadership. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014]

2. Ratcliffe, R. (2013). What’s the difference between leadership and management?. [online] the Guardian. Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014].

3., (2014). What is the Difference Between Management and Leadership? – Management – [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014].

4.  Small Business –, (2014). 5 Different Types of Leadership Styles. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014].

5., (2014). Leadership Styles: Choosing the Right Approach for the Situation. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014]


Diverse Teams Produce Better Results


Diversity in simple words mean difference. It has been noted that people do have a lot in common with each other but are unique in various ways. These various ways can be in terms of culture background work in style etc.  It has to be seen that these are well recognized and each individuals differences are understood well and embraced thus leading in creating a very productive workforce.

Diverse teams are understood to have produced better results throughout. A well understood and well maintained team is always a great success for accomplishing targets. They are known and seen to be producing results of higher quality.


Research conducted in various universities to find out if diverse teams create or produce better results have come out to be a great success. Prestigious institutions for example, Rutgers University had run a research on diverse workplace consisting of their staff from various races, backgrounds and ethnicity and it was seen that they performed well and came out with astonishing results compared to that of people working in groups of similar backgrounds.


The strengths of having a diverse team is mainly better ideas, and various thinking methods each person has acquired from their particular culture bringing in good and different information to the team in order to achieve their goals or complete a task. This not only lead to the improvement of the team but also helps in increasing an individuals experience and creativity as he or she is involved or engaged with colleagues from various culture and backgrounds thus helping them break down various problems and also making them aware of various cultures.

Work Place diversity is seen to be of good use in order to increase production. Workplace diversity increases employee morale. Increase in employee morale leads to increase in their efficiency and desire to perform well for the organization. Leadership diversity is a good way to bring new skills into the team as well as achieve unity if managed properly in the right manner.


How to create a very good diverse team

As from the point of view of a leader it is important to give the team space and time to take up certain decisions in their unique way. At times the process of innovation among a diverse team can be difficult and may turn messy. Hence it is sometimes better to leave the decision making to the team.

It is common nature for people with similar views and ideas to gravitate towards each other. In order to get the full benefits of diversity in a workplace, a shakeup at certain times is very necessary. This will always various ways for very good innovation to take root.

New ideas should always be welcome.  If a team senses that their ideas or ways of innovation are not welcome they will step back rather than putting themselves to utmost use. In an organization that has been stuck to its organizational old structures and values it might take time for the workers to feel comfortable in bringing out their skills and ideas. Praising the workers and giving them suggestion will help.


Diversity in a team goes through various ways. There are certain steps to be considered in order to have a very sound and well managed team.

  1. Forming: Here, in the process of forming, it is the basic ways of forming the team. Here in the team people are focused on meeting and assigning duties to one another on what should be done rather than causing problems or controversies. Here during the starting period they are bound to behave quite independently.
  2. Storming: Storming is one of the most important stages because by this time conflicts are bound to arise. Each and every team member must learn to tolerate the other or else if the situation goes out of control they are bound to fail.
  3. Norming:  By now the team has come up to a point of just achieving the goal. It might be necessary to give up ones ideas at times to keep the team going.
  4. Performing- The team is now efficiently achieving its targets in a very smooth way without conflicts. By the performing stage they are well motivated.

We have now seen why diverse teams are any day better. It’s not just the change in culture but also the ideas and ways that helps each other grow independently in order leading to a healthy and efficient organization.


1., (2014). Diversity and Work Group Performance | Stanford Graduate School of Business. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014].

2., (2014). How Does Workplace Diversity Impact Team Performance? – Hcareers. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014].

3., (2014). Better Decisions Through Diversity – Heterogeneity can boost group performance. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014].

4., (2014). HR Magazine – How to run a diversity recruitment campaign that produces results. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014]